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"Devil Fruit" has been featured, meaning it was chosen as an article of interest.

For the song "Akuma no Mi", see Akuma no Mi (song).

Devil Fruits are mysterious, distinctive fruits scattered throughout the world, known for granting their eaters permanent superhuman powers—and an equally permanent inability to swim.

As a whole, Devil Fruits encompass hundreds of different powers, from the (apparently) mundane to the inherently mass-destructive. These are broadly grouped along three categories: Paramecia, Logia, and Zoan.

Devil Fruits have empowered many of the world's most significant individuals, especially among the Three Great Powers. This, along with their general rarity, causes them to be highly sought-after; single specimens may be valued at hundreds of millions in Belly, and extensive efforts have been made to mass-produce artificial versions for warfare. With only one notable exception, an individual can only acquire the powers of a single Devil Fruit and survive.

According to Oda, a "certain professor" will explain the complex mechanisms behind all of the Devil Fruits in the series at some point in the future.[1]


I heard they are incarnations of the sea devil. Supposedly, if you eat one, you will gain devil powers... but the sea will hate you and take your ability to swim!
— Shanks[2]

Gigantic tidal waves created by the power of a Devil Fruit.

A Devil Fruit, after being consumed, gives the consumer a superpower or special trait, which they will soon become aware of; a person who has eaten a Devil Fruit and gained its powers is known as a Devil Fruit User (能力者 Nōryoku-sha?, lit. "Power User" or "Esper")[3] There are more than 100 different Devil Fruits in the world, but only one of each Devil Fruit exists.[4][1] Additionally, all Devil Fruits are known to taste very bad and cause the consumer to permanently lose their ability to swim.[5]

It is currently unknown what exactly Devil Fruits are, where they came from, or exactly how they work. What is known about them is that the powers within affect the eater's Lineage Factor.[6] The fruits come in all different shapes and colors, though all the Devil Fruits seen so far have possessed swirl marks or patterns.[7] The only known exceptions are the Artificial Devil Fruits, which have ring patterns on them.[8] The oldest introduced Devil Fruit user is Kozuki Toki, who was born 800 years ago, meaning Devil Fruits have existed in the world for at least eight centuries.[9]

Becoming a Devil Fruit User with only one bite.

Only one bite is needed for the user to gain the power of the Devil Fruit, after which the Devil Fruit becomes a simple, useless, disgusting fruit. Despite this, the majority of those who have consumed a Devil Fruit have eaten the entire Fruit, as they are apparently unaware of this fact.[10] Furthermore, the consumer gains the powers and drawbacks of the Fruit immediately after the Fruit is swallowed, without needing to wait for the fruit to digest.[11][12]

A person can only eat a single Devil Fruit in their entire life; any attempt to gain a second Devil Fruit power will cause the consumer's body to be torn apart to such a degree that little trace is left of it, resulting in their death. The reason for this is currently unknown; it is rumored that an actual devil lives inside each fruit and transfers to a fruit user's body upon consumption and would fight with the devil inhabiting another fruit if they were to meet within the same body, but this rumor has been debunked by science.[13]

Notably, there is a method that would allow one to steal the Devil Fruit powers from the dead body of a deceased Devil Fruit user. The details of this method are currently unknown. The only ones who know this method are Marshall D. Teach and his crew.

Devil Fruits when first described by Morgan.

Devil Fruits are said to be the fruits of the Sea Devil and that the secret to their power is hidden in the Grand Line. Because encounters with them are rare (especially outside the Grand Line), a number of rumors about them have risen, making it difficult to tell whether some things are fact or fiction; some people even dismissed them as mere myth until actually getting to see one in action.

The average person knows nothing or very little about what they are or what they do; this especially applies to people in isolated countries, even within the Grand Line, such as the people of Wano Country, and even Princess Shirahoshi of Fish-Man Island, as none of them know about the Devil Fruits, instead believing the powers bestowed to users are curses[14] or sorcery.[15] Relatedly, Devil Fruits may also lead to the user being considered a "freak" and treated as an outcast. This is due to some of the abilities considered far too strange or frightening for normal people to accept.[16] In many cases, Devil Fruit users are considered a different race altogether, and with good reason.

Many Devil Fruit users have their own title, such as Rubber Human (ゴム人間 Gomu Ningen?), Magma Human (マグマ人間 Maguma Ningen?), or Human Reindeer (人間トナカイ Ningen Tonakai?). As seen with these examples, the title is usually the type of ability followed by the species (or in the case of items which has eaten Zoan fruits, the object they originally were). The sole exception is the Kage Kage no Mi user, who gains the title of Ruler of Shadows (影の支配者 Kage no Shihaisha?).

Devil Fruit powers extending through the users clothing.

Notably, Devil Fruit powers generally extend through the clothes that the user is wearing. Paramecia Fruit users alter their clothes along with themselves automatically (for example, Luffy's shirt will never burst a button when his torso is inflated in Gear Third, Mr. 1's pants become blades along with his legs, etc.), Zoan Fruit users' clothes will fit in the same proportions after their transformation (Chopper's hat grew big when he was in Monster Point, Jabra's shoes are considerably stretched when in the hybrid form), and Logia Fruit users transform their clothes (and subsequent accessories) to their element along with themselves. Oda explained in an SBS once that if he had done it realistically, the manga would have too much unnecessary nudity.[17] This rule also applies to cyborg enhancements and prosthetic body parts. An example of this is Queen's artificial arm, which transforms into a brachiosaurus leg when he takes his brachiosaurus form.[18] However, some users do not seem to adhere to this, such as Jewelry Bonney, whose clothes do not change proportionally to their powers.[19]

Interestingly, although eating a Devil Fruit affects the consumer's genetic blueprint, it causes no abnormalities in the user's children. An example is the Charlotte Family; though its matriarch, Charlotte Linlin has Devil Fruit powers, none of her children were born with powers of their own. Furthermore, even though the parents cannot consume a second Devil Fruit, a Devil Fruit user's children who don’t already have powers can consume Devil Fruits of their own without dying, should the opportunity present itself.

Devil Fruits are the source of power for some of the strongest people of the current generation in the world, including rookie pirate crews, the Marine admirals, the Seven Warlords of the Sea, and at least three Emperors, Blackbeard, Big Mom, and Kaidou.

Because of their power, Devil Fruits are highly sought after by both the government and the Underworld, among many other parties. If sold, they can expect to fetch well over Beli.png100,000,000,[2] and Devil Fruit users themselves are sold at market prices the same way slaves are.[20] Of course, individual Fruits each have their differences in price, depending on the powers bestowed, as the Ope Ope no Mi is worth over Beli.png5,000,000,000 in the black market.[21]

One of the strongest organizations in the world consisting of multiple Devil Fruit users.

They are relatively common in the Grand Line compared to the other four blues.[22] A typical pirate crew in the Grand Line will often center around a captain with Devil Fruit powers (such as the Bellamy Pirates, the Wapol Pirates, or the Foxy Pirates), while stronger crews and organizations will often contain multiple Devil Fruit users (such as the Whitebeard Pirates, the Big Mom Pirates, the Beasts Pirates, the Donquixote Pirates, Baroque Works, or the Marines). Two of the Emperors (Blackbeard and Kaidou) even take this so far as to go out of their way to gather as many Devil Fruits as possible using their own unique methods. In fact, since entering the Grand Line, nearly every single major opponent that Luffy has faced had a Devil Fruit ability, while in the East Blue he only faced two (not including Alvida, who ate her Devil Fruit later on, after their first encounter).[23][24]


Natural Devil Fruits

Devil Fruits exist in a cycle of reincarnation; when a Devil Fruit user dies, their ability is reborn into a new fruit at some random location in the world. Instead of growing from a plant, the ability simply regenerates inside another similar fruit which then transforms into the Devil Fruit in question, as seen when Smiley "died" and the power of the Sara Sara no Mi, Model: Axolotl was reborn into a nearby apple.

When this happens, the empowered fruit changes appearance. Some characteristics of a fruits transformation into a Devil Fruit include the stem becoming noticeably curlier than it was when the Fruit was not endowed with the ability. It also changes color and takes on the distinct spiral patters that Devil Fruits are known to have.[25]

Artificial Devil Fruit

SMILE Devil Fruits have been shown to grow on trees, groomed by the Dwarves of the Tontatta Kingdom under the Donquixote Pirates coercion. Unlike regular Devil fruits, the SMILE are more traditional fruits that are transformed over time.[26]


Devil Fruit Reincarnation.png
The Devil Fruit reincarnation cycle.
A Devil Fruit is Created.gif
Incomplete SMILE Fruits.png
SMILE Fruits mid-growth.

Devil Fruit Powers that Returned into Circulation

Devil Fruit Last Possessor Circumstances Status
Soru Soru no Mi Carmel Mysteriously disappeared, but confirmed to be dead. Power obtained by Charlotte Linlin through unknown means.
Mane Mane no Mi Kurozumi Higurashi Killed by Kaidou. Fruit eventually obtained and eaten by Bentham.
Bari Bari no Mi Kurozumi Semimaru Died through unknown reason. Fruit eventually obtained and eaten by Bartolomeo.
Ope Ope no Mi Unnamed doctor Died through unknown reason. Fruit eventually obtained by Diez Barrels, stolen by Donquixote Rosinante, and force fed to Trafalgar Law.
Toki Toki no Mi Kozuki Toki Shot by the Beasts Pirates. Unknown status.
Nagi Nagi no Mi Donquixote Rosinante Killed by Donquixote Doflamingo. Unknown status.
Mera Mera no Mi Portgas D. Ace Killed by Sakazuki. Fruit obtained by Donquixote Doflamingo, offered as a prize in the Corrida Colosseum, and then won and eaten by Sabo.
Gura Gura no Mi Edward Newgate Killed by the Blackbeard Pirates. Power obtained by Marshall D. Teach using an unknown method.
Sara Sara no Mi, Model: Axolotl Smiley Devoured candy and transformed into Shinokuni. Last seen on Punk Hazard.
Yuki Yuki no Mi Monet Inadvertently killed by Caesar Clown. Unknown status.
Gutsu Gutsu no Mi  Bill Died when Silver Mine was destroyed. Unknown status.
Suke Suke no Mi Absalom Killed by the Blackbeard Pirates Fruit obtained and eaten by Shiryu.
* Note: While the Mini Mini no Mi and Gutsu Gutsu no Mi were used by two different users (Blyue and Lily Enstomach ate the Mini Mini no Mi and Lambor Bukini and Bill ate the Gutsu Gutsu no Mi), it is not to be assumed that either had died and that the fruit respawned, as all users and both fruits are non canon.


We can figure out the name of a Fruit by the power it gives, but the kind of power we get is completely up to chance.
— Kaku on his and Kalifa's unidentified Devil Fruits[27]

Devil Fruit Encyclopedia

There is a Devil Fruit Encyclopedia (悪魔の実図鑑 Akuma no Mi Zukan?) that lists the names and powers of all the Devil Fruits. However, only a few of them have illustrations, meaning that most Devil Fruits cannot be identified by their appearance. For example, the Gomu Gomu no Mi and the Yami Yami no Mi had pictures and could be recognized prior to consumption,[28][29] whereas the Awa Awa no Mi and the Ushi Ushi no Mi, Model: Giraffe did not, and could only be identified by the abilities they granted.[27] This would only imply that the information in the book is incomplete and that there are still fruits out there with attributes that have yet to be documented.

One individual known to utilize this book is Blackbeard, who, in his search for the Yami Yami no Mi, memorized its shape from the illustration provided.[29] The Vinsmoke Family also has a copy of the encyclopedia,[30] which Sanji read and became interested in the Suke Suke no Mi.[31]

Types of Devil Fruit

All Devil Fruit are categorized into three types/classes. Currently of all named fruits, only two non-canon Devil Fruits have an undetermined type.

  • Logia - The rarest and most powerful of the three Devil Fruit types, Logia-type Devil Fruits allow their users to create, control, and transform their body into a natural element, such as ice, mud, smoke, fire, or darkness. The elemental transformation effectively makes the user intangible, as well as allowing the user to remain in control of their body, even when it is broken into pieces. They also gain every ability related to that element, such as sand being able to absorb moisture or lightning being able to travel through conductive objects.
  • Zoan - The users of Zoan-type Devil Fruits gain the ability to transform into an animal, as well as transform into a hybrid form of their own species and the species the fruit allows them to transform into. A recently discovered science allows Zoan Fruits to be integrated into objects, bringing the object to life and granting it the standard Zoan transformations. Carnivorous animal Zoans are better suited for combat. Zoan Fruits have a number of sub-classifications, including:
    • Ancient Zoan - Zoan Fruits that allow the user to transform into an extinct species, such as dinosaurs. Ancient Zoans are rare and they appear to be stronger than regular Zoans.
    • Mythical Zoan - Zoan Fruits that allow the user to transform into mythological creatures, such as a dragon or a phoenix. Mythical Zoan animals tend to have special powers, like a phoenix Zoan being able to generate flames that have healing powers. Mythical Zoans are the rarest type of Devil Fruit, even more so than Logias.
    • Artificial Zoan - Artificially created Zoan Fruits that cause the user to permanently take on an animal characteristic; though, much more rarely, the user would be able to transform at will. The Artificial Zoan Fruits had a 10% success rate, while the other 90%, in addition to not gaining animal traits and losing the ability to swim, were stripped of the ability to express negative emotions, leaving them only able to smile and laugh, regardless of how they actually feel. The Artificial Fruits were developed by Vegapunk and Donquixote Doflamingo.[32][33]

There are devil fruits with undetermined class:


  • Laffitte's unnamed Devil Fruit, that allows him to sprout angelic wings and utilize them to fly.
  • Karasu's unnamed Devil Fruit that allows him to turn his body and clothes into a murder of crows.


  • Meta Meta no Mi: Allows the user to control liquid metal, making them a Liquid Metal Human (液体金属人間 Ekitai Kinzoku Ningen). It was eaten by Graydle.
  • Zuma Zuma no Mi: Allows the user to control plasma, making the user a Plasma Human (プラズマ人間 Purazuma Ningen). It was eaten by Smash.

Devil Fruit Count

Canon Non-Canon SBS Total
Paramecia 82* 37 3 122
Logia 11 3 0 14
Zoan 44** 7 0 51
Undetermined 2 2 0 4
Total Devil Fruits 139 49 3 191
* Note: This number includes the Fuwa Fuwa no Mi, which was not named or detailed in the manga. It is deemed to be a canon Fruit because Shiki's escape from Impel Down (which involved the Fruit) was mentioned in the manga.[34][35][36]
** Note: This number excludes Artificial Devil Fruits.


Luffy took some time to perfect his elastic attacks.

After consuming a fruit, the user doesn’t automatically have mastery over their powers and must train themselves to properly use their new powers. The more the user understands their own capabilities, the greater the varieties of techniques the users can utilize, which eventually leads to the awakening itself. Those who cannot harness their Devil Fruit's power well will not be able to utilize their abilities to the fullest.

Different people take different amounts of time to master their powers. For example, Luffy spent years learning how to use the Gomu Gomu no Mi, whereas Kalifa and Kaku only took hours to get used to their new abilities after consuming their Devil Fruits. Sabo trained with his Mera Mera no Mi ability at Baltigo days after Doflamingo's downfall, indicating that Sabo was still trying to understand its power. Brook himself took around 50 years to finally understand the full potential of his Yomi Yomi no Mi, earning his title of Soul King.

Proficiency also relates to the user's stamina. When exhausted, one cannot use their powers properly and must rest to regain their strength. After using his monster point, Chopper must rest for at least three hours after the Rumble Ball effect subsided.


The four Jailer Beasts are awakened Zoans.

Devil Fruit powers can, in rare instances, achieve "awakening" (覚醒 kakusei?), greatly increasing the abilities of the user. The details of how a Devil Fruit can be awakened are currently unknown, but the increased abilities have been seen to allow significantly greater power, more refined control, and new abilities that would otherwise not be possible. The effects of the awakening depend on the type of the Devil Fruit.


For Zoan-type powers, awakening grants far greater strength, speed, and durability than unawakened Zoan powers. This also includes faster recovery time, which functions involuntarily, even when the user is unconscious.

Awakened Zoan fruit users have yet to show signs of complex thought, seemingly acting out on instinct and power. All Awakened Zoan users seen so far are always in a form resembling their full beast form, but with human attributes. It is unknown if they became this way permanently upon awakening, or if these forms are a conscious choice.

Four of the five Jailer Beasts are all classified as awakened Zoan users, with the fifth one being unknown.[37]


Listen up, hatchling. Devil Fruit abilities have a whole other stage to them. It’s called "Awakening"! Very rarely, an ability will "awaken", and begin to affect things other than the user's own body!
— Donquixote Doflamingo to Monkey D. Luffy on the new power he is displaying.[38]

For Paramecia-type powers, awakening allows the user to use their Devil Fruits at a new level of strength and in different manners than they originally could. Luffy notes that such a feat makes it no longer appear to be the power of a mere Paramecia.[38]

Doflamingo uses the Ito Ito no Mi to turn the environment into strings.

An awakened Paramecia allows the user to spread their power beyond their own body and transform inorganic material around them to match the nature of their Devil Fruit power, as well as manipulate the transformed material in any way they desire. The transformation effect can be spread over a very wide area.

The main difference between awakening and Devil Fruits that allow the user to transform and manipulate the environment in the unawakened stage, such as the Hira Hira no Mi, is that awakening allows one to transform the environment from afar, as well as control it with just their mind. Unawakened environment manipulating Devil Fruits require the user to touch what they wish to transform, and often requires bodily movement to be controlled.

Doflamingo, after awakening the Ito Ito no Mi, can extend his string creating ability, transmuting the ground and buildings into vast quantities of strings that he can manipulate without even the need to touch them. Katakuri affects the environment in a similar way with his Mochi Mochi no Mi during his battle with Luffy.[39]

The following events are Non-Canon and therefore not considered part of the Canon story.

Non-canonically, a second version of Paramecia awakening has been seen. This version of Paramecia awakening allows the user to vastly expand the strength and range of the Fruits power, as well as super-fine tune the ability.

Gild Tesoro awakened his Goru Goru no Mi, which allows him to create a complex sensory network within the gold he touched, enabling him to sense every movement connected with his gold[40]. Douglas Bullet awakened his Gasha Gasha no Mi, allowing him to extend the range of his material combining ability to disassemble and restructure entire terrains into constructs as he sees fit.[41]

This shows, at least non-canonically, that different Paramecia Fruits awaken in different ways, depending on the nature of the Fruit.

Concludes non-canon section.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Benefits of Consumption

Regardless of the type of power, it all depends on how you use it. The chances of you weakening from it are very low. Besides, being a hammer isn't much of an inconvenience.
— Rob Lucci on Devil Fruit power.[5]

Devil Fruit powers permanently alter the climate of an island.

The main attraction of eating a Devil Fruit is the power bestowed to the user upon ingestion. More often than not, the benefits and uses bestowed by a Devil Fruit far outweigh the loss of the ability to swim. Many of these powers are advantageous in combat; such as enhanced physical strength, a variety of unique attacks, and even controlling the forces of nature. There are also powers that are good for support; such as the ability to heal others, enhanced senses, and to create food out of nothing.

Devil Fruit powers are so varied and mysterious, that the powers gained from eating one can serve purposes that may transcend normal limits. One such example is that one such Devil Fruit was able to cure an otherwise incurable disease.[42]

Regardless of what power one receives, even ones that would normally be considered "weird" or "useless", can be utilized as a highly valuable asset both in and out of combat. What matters is the strength, skill, and creativity of the user. If nothing else, eating a Devil Fruit will not make its user any weaker.

Additionally, since each Devil Fruit user possesses a unique ability, they each require different countermeasures to deal with them, outside of the standard Devil Fruit weaknesses of Seastone and the inability to swim. As such, Devil Fruit users with odd or unfamiliar powers are very tricky to deal with in fight. However, if a person has strong haki, they have greater resistance to devil fruit power. The standard approach is to take a step back and experiment with different means of attack against the Devil Fruit user.[43]

Another advantage of Devil Fruit powers is that many places and people lack information about them, resulting in the belief that the powers are some kind of magic or curse. These misconceptions on how the power was achieved can be utilized by the user to manipulate individuals for the user's own purposes.[44][45]

Devil Fruit powers are highly coveted, with many people spending their entire lives seeking out just one specific Devil Fruit, with most of these seekers often ending up disappointed or dead.

The subject of which Devil Fruit is the most powerful is up for debate. There are a number of Devil Fruits which have noticeable strengths; such as the Magu Magu no Mi, which has the greatest attack power out of all the Devil Fruits; or the Gura Gura no Mi, which is said to be able to destroy the entire world. However, as mentioned above, the strength of a Devil Fruit ultimately depends on the user.

Consequences of Consumption

You could sell 'em for hundreds of millions. But one bite might leave you with a lifetime of problems, you know!?
— Jabra's warning to Kalifa and Kaku.[5]

From a country that doesn’t know about Devil Fruits, the power is referred to as Jutsu.

Devil Fruits, despite all of their beneficial attributes, have a number of downsides. One such downside is that so little is really known about them. In some cases, an entire society can be completely unaware of the existence of Devil Fruits. Due to this lack of information, and with some Devil Fruits still being unknown, the average consumer is effectively gambling when consuming one, without knowing what powers the Devil Fruit will grant, potentially resulting in a power that is difficult for that particular person to work with.

Even if the power that Devil Fruit user gains is a useful one, a Devil fruit user doesn’t automatically have control over their powers. All Devil Fruit users have to train to learn how to activate, control, and use their power. This process could potentially put the Devil Fruit user in a position that is painful and/or humiliating.

Another downside is that, while many citizens can be fascinated by people with powers,[46] others may consider a Devil Fruit user to be "a freak", "a monster", or even "a devil". With no way of removing the power, a Devil Fruits user will end up leading a miserable life full of discrimination from those around them.[16]

Weakness to Water

Luffy and Brook losing strength as a result of being submerged in water.

The most prominent consequence of eating a Devil Fruit is the weakness to seawater: the sea hates and rejects Devil Fruit users, causing them to become weak and helpless while submerged in water, also referred to as "becoming a hammer (カナヅチ kanazuchi?)".[2] Though this weakness is usually referred to as the inability to swim, a more accurate definition is that the seawater itself is the weakness. The inability to move their body in the sea is simply a byproduct of the weakness.

In a world made up almost entirely of ocean, being weak against the sea can prove deadly to many Devil Fruit users, such as pirates and Marines sailing on the Grand Line.

Oda stated in an SBS that Devil Fruit users are susceptible to all types of water, not just seawater.[47] This includes the white sea surrounding Skypiea. He elaborated on this, saying that "moving" water, like rain or waves, does not weaken Devil Fruit users, while standing water, like lakes or rivers, does. This was also shown first when Monkey D. Luffy was in the Dance Powder induced rain and did not feel his power slipping away, and again when on Zou, when the seawater that Zunesha used to shower did not affect him despite being seawater as it was "moving" water.[48]

Devil Fruit users standing in water; powerless, but still able to move due to not being submerged deep enough.

One of the greatest dangers created by a Devil Fruit user's weakness to water is the risk of drowning, which opponents can take advantage of in order to kill even the strongest of Devil Fruit users. However, it should be noted that the risk of drowning only applies to a devil fruit user if they cannot breath underwater; as fish-man and merfolk Devil Fruit users are capable of breathing underwater, they are not subject to this risk. However, even if a Devil Fruit user can survive underwater without drowning, they will still be rendered unable to move. This immobility would make such users vulnerable to underwater dangers, such as ocean predators, as they would be incapable of defending themselves. Oda stated in an SBS that it is not until a Devil Fruit user has at least half their body in water that they become immobilized. This is seen when the Gorgon sisters and Luffy in Boa Hancock's bath were still able to move. Brook was also seen slowly losing his strength as the water levels increased in the floods in Ryugu Palace, demonstrating that being in contact with the sea does not instantly rob their strength unless it reaches a certain level.[49]

Another danger is that if even only a part of the user's body is submerged in water, they cannot use their Devil Fruit powers, no matter how much or how little is submerged. However, if the user's body has been permanently altered by the Fruit, then the user's ability can be manipulated by outside sources; e.g., when Luffy was knocked into and sunk to the bottom of the pool at Arlong Park, Genzo and Nojiko dove underwater and stretched his neck so his head would be above water, allowing him to respirate. However, it should be noted that just being wet is not enough to induce weakness and nullify the users powers, the same is true for water inside the Devil Fruit users body, such as water that the user drinks, as seen when Luffy used Water Luffy, he and his powers were not affected in any way by the water in his body or the water covering his fists.[50][51]

It should also be noted that although all Devil Fruit users are weak against water, the power itself may still work underwater (for example, Galdino can survive underwater by creating a bowl of wax surrounding him, and the keys he creates can be used to open Seastone handcuffs). Luffy was also shown after the timeskip to be able to use Gear Third underwater but it did greatly reduce the strength of his attacks.

Devil Fruit powers working underwater since the user isn’t actually touching the water.

Despite the weakness to water, a Devil Fruit user will only be affected by the water if he or she is physically touching it. Not touching the water itself will allow the user to go unaffected, even if submerged, shown when the Monster Trio used diving gear to reach the sunken St. Briss,[52] and again when the same trio coated themselves in smaller bubbles of Yarukiman Tree Resin bubbles to battle the Kraken.

Aside from the common weakness of becoming paralyzed in still water that all Devil Fruit users share, there are many powers that also have a further weakness to water, having their abilities dampened[53][54][55] or even outright washed away upon contact.[56][57][58]

In addition to the weakness to actual water, there is a substance known as Seastone, a special, near-indestructible substance that emits the same energies of the sea, referred to as the sea in solid form. Coming into contact with Seastone has the same effect on Devil Fruit users as falling into the water, canceling out the Devil Fruit users powers and weakening the Devil Fruit user to the point where they can’t move. The Marines use this to their advantage when imprisoning pirates in Impel Down.

Superiority and Unpredictability

Depending on how you use and train the ability of the Devil Fruit... It can become a strong weapon in battle.
— Crocodile's statement on his powers[59]

Fire and ice canceling each other out.

While the strength and capabilities of a Devil Fruit are ultimately determined by the strength and skill of the user, some Devil Fruit powers react in certain ways against each other, regardless of the users own capabilities. In some cases, one Devil Fruit has natural superiority over another, resulting in a significant advantage in combat. Aside from this rule of superiority, other Devil Fruit powers can react to each other in all kinds of unpredictable manners.

List of Confirmed Superiorities

Some Devil Fruits of similar powers have been confirmed to be in a relationship of superiority and inferiority. In a fight between the two, the one with the superior power is almost certain to win. Though, this in no way means that the user of the superior power is stronger than the inferior's user.[60]

Superior Devil Fruit Inferior Devil Fruit Ability Differences
Magu Magu no Mi Mera Mera no Mi Forms of heat Magma is of a higher order than fire.
Ton Ton no Mi Kiro Kiro no Mi Body weight control The increase in weight by metric tons, which is 1000 kilograms.
Hie Hie no Mi Yuki Yuki no Mi Frozen states of water Ice is a more effective freezing agent than snow.
Buki Buki no Mi Supa Supa no Mi Weapon production The Supa Supa no Mi is limited to blades, while the Buki Buki no Mi can create all forms of weaponry.

List of Seen Unpredictability

In many cases, outside of the above mentioned rule of superiority, there is no way to tell how Devil Fruit powers will fare when pitted against one other.[61] A Devil Fruit user who normally dominates all other powers can sometimes be brought down by a power normally considered "weak" in comparison.

Devil Fruits Effect
Mera Mera no Mi Moku Moku no Mi/
Hie Hie no Mi
Mutual cancellation.[62][63]
Ame Ame no Mi/
Mochi Mochi no Mi
Gomu Gomu no Mi Gomu Gomu no Mi techniques are matched, mimicked, and suppressed.[64][65][66]
Gomu Gomu no Mi Goro Goro no Mi Gomu Gomu no Mi user's rubber body has resistance to electricity.[67]
Doru Doru no Mi Doku Doku no Mi Doru Doru no Mi's wax can block the Doku Doku no Mi's basic poison, though not its most potent poison.[68]
Hana Hana no Mi Nuke Nuke no Mi  Hana Hana no Mi user's appendages can grab and constrain Nuke Nuke no Mi's user.[69]
Yomi Yomi no Mi Soru Soru no Mi Yomi Yomi no Mi's user's soul energy is able to force-release souls from regular Homies, though not from Special Homies.[70]
Memo Memo no Mi Soru Soru no Mi Original soul owner's memories briefly return to Homies affected by the Memo Memo no Mi.[71]
Kibi Kibi no Mi SMILE Tama is able to tame the 10% of SMILE users who gained animal powers.[72]

Myths and Misconceptions

Due to the rarity and mysterious nature of the Devil Fruits, many rumors surround their existence. Particularly remote regions of the four cardinal Blues or isolated nations such as Wano Country often lack knowledge of the fruits, believing them to be a myth entirely or attributing their powers to pure magic. The following is a list of various myths and misconceptions about Devil Fruits in the world.

  • As stated by Shanks, Devil Fruit are considered by some to be "incarnations" (化身 keshin?) of the Sea Devil (海の悪魔 Umi no Akuma?).[2]
  • Jabra believed a rumor that Devil Fruit users housed actual devils inside them. According to the rumor, if a Devil Fruit user went near an uneaten Devil Fruit, a devil would come out of the fruit and rip the user apart. This rumor has been debunked by research.[5]
  • In Amazon Lily, the citizens are unaware of the existence of Devil Fruits. The ruling Gorgon Sisters are believed to have gained their Mero Mero no Mi and Hebi Hebi no Mi abilities from a curse cast by a creature known as the "Gorgon".[73]
  • Vander Decken IX refers to his Mato Mato no Mi ability as the "Mato Mato Curse".[74] Sugar's Hobi Hobi no Mi is also called the "Hobi Hobi Curse" by its victims.[75]
  • The Tontatta Tribe of Green Bit refer to Devil Fruit abilities as Magic (奇術 Kijutsu?).[76]
  • In Wano Country, Devil Fruit abilities are considered Sorcery (妖術 Yōjutsu?) or Ninjutsu. Devil Fruit users are called Sorcery Users (妖術使い Yōjutsu Tsukai?).[15]


Dr. Vegapunk, a Marine scientist and the world’s most prominent researcher of Devil Fruits, is heavily responsible for the research into the effects of Devil Fruits' and Seastone. It was Vegapunk who discovered that Devil Fruits work by effecting the Lineage Factor.

Vegapunk even managed to replicate the effects of one Fruit to a certain degree.

Caesar Clown stated that he has done numerous experiments on his own Devil Fruit, insinuating that he managed to enhance its power after consumption. He has not yet explained what his research was or how he did it though.

Inanimate Object Devil Fruit Users

A sword with an elephant Zoan.

Some years before the current timeline, Dr. Vegapunk discovered a technique that allows one to make an inanimate object (such as a gun or a sword) to "eat" a Devil Fruit and gain it’s power. The details of this process have not yet been revealed. So far, Zoan is the only type of Devil Fruit that inanimate objects have been shown as being able to absorb. Inanimate object Zoans seem to be very loyal to whomever owns them.

Objects that have "ingested" a Zoan Fruit gain the mobility, abilities, and intelligence of the animal they turn into. This can be a drawback, as the object also gains a living creature's ability to feel pain and fear, and becomes susceptible to disease.[77]

The technique that allows an object to eat a Zoan fruit is not limited to solid materials, gaseous slime can also be used as a medium.

Artificial Devil Fruits

Further information: Artificial Devil Fruit and SMILE

With scientists learning more about how Devil Fruits work, it became possible for Artificial Devil Fruits to be created. Like real Devil Fruits, they grant powers to the consumer and take away the consumers ability to swim. Dr. Vegapunk created a synthesized Devil Fruit, though it was said to be flawed for unknown reasons.[8]

Artificial Devil Fruits being grown.

Caesar Clown managed to create his own version of artificial Devil Fruits where Vegapunk failed; they are called SMILEs.[32] They allow the eater to gain Zoan-like animal attributes; however, they have a severe flaw: only 10% of the people who eat them could attain a Zoan-transformation, while the remaining 90%, in addition to not gaining any powers, will lose not just their ability to swim, but also their ability to express any emotions other that joy, forcing them to constantly smile and laugh, even if it contradicts their true feelings.[78]

The manufacturing process of SMILE Fruits involved having luminescent sunflowers provide light to the trees growing the fruits while SAD is poured into a river leading into irrigation canals which then channel the river under the trees in order to feed them the chemical.[79]

Many, if not all Artificial Devil Fruits appear to be greatly inferior in strength compared to real Devil Fruits.

Rumble Balls

Further information: Rumble Ball

Rumble Ball

Tony Tony Chopper, during his six year apprenticeship under Dr. Kureha, created a special drug called the "Rumble Ball". It temporarily enhances the effects of the users Devil Fruit, granting them additional powers. The Rumble Ball works by "disrupting the wavelength" of the Devil Fruit.[80]

When consumed by a Zoan user, the Rumble Ball will grant the user additional transformations that they would normally not be able to achieve. It is currently unknown what the effect would be if the Rumble Ball was consumed by a Logia or Paramecia user.

A Devil fruit user should take no more than one Rumble Ball every six hours. If one were to take a second Rumble Ball, they would gain the extra powers, but would not be able to control them. A third Rumble Ball would cause the person's Devil Fruit power to go completely out of control, something that is potentially deadly to friends, foes, and user alike.

It is possible for a Devil Fruit user to utilize the additional powers granted by the Rumble Ball without actually taking the drug, something that Chopper was able to achieve after two years of training and research. Additionally, once this level of mastery is achieved, a Devil Fruit user can access the power of three Rumble Balls by taking only one, and control that immense power for a short time as well.

Early One Piece

In Eiichiro Oda's first and second Romance Dawn prototypes, the Gomu Gomu no Mi was depicted near-identically to its counterpart in One Piece proper. However, both prototypes gave its origins as a "legend tree" (幻の木 Maboroshi no ki?) that appeared once every fifty years, with no implications of similar or related fruits.

Manga and Anime Influences

The rumor that Jabra recounted about Devil Fruits housing actual devils is similar to the Hindu belief about belerics; because of this the Hindus of Northern India avoids the trees and will not sit in its shade. However, Beleric fruit is also known for its medicinal properties and is used by Hindu physicians for various ailments.

The other part of Jabra's rumor about the fruit's devil tearing out and killing the consumer from within is similar to another Hindu legend, particularly the version in Villivakkam, about two rakshasa brothers: Vatapi would take the shape of a fruit or meat and Ilvala would offer the "food" to innocent mendicants passing by. Vatapi would come out by tearing through the victim's body. However, this failed against Agastya.

Translation and Dub Issues

Many of the fruits are named after highly specific Japanese concepts and onomatopoeia (or shortenings thereof), rendering direct translations awkward if not impossible. The Mera Mera no Mi, for instance, is named for the "crackling" sounds of a fire; all licensed English translations name it after synonyms for fire itself.

Corto referred to them as the Diablo Fruit.[81]

The 4Kids-dubbed anime renames the fruits as a whole to "Curséd Fruits" (pronounced as two distinct syllables) to avoid the reference to the devil, which some religious viewers may have found offensive.


SBS-Based Trivia

  • In an SBS question, a reader asked if he could get Luffy's Gomu Gomu no Mi powers by eating Luffy. Oda answered no, and that he would get food poisoning instead.[90]
  • Whenever a filler Devil Fruit is going to be used in a filler arc, the writers ask permission to use it from the author, Eiichiro Oda. In an SBS, Oda described the process as "Basically, all that happens is that the anime's scriptwriters come up with powers that they want to use in the story, and I say 'Yeah, that sounds good', or 'No, sorry, I want to use that one in the future'. That's all."[91]


  1. 1.0 1.1 SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 48 (p. 166), "For more detail, you'll just have to wait for a certain professor to make his appearance in the story, and explain exactly what the Devil Fruits REALLY are... eventually."
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 3 Chapter 19 (p. 14) and Episode 8, A young Shanks discusses Devil Fruits with Buggy.
  3. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 4 Chapter 35 (p. 8) and Episode 15, Kuro identifies Luffy's abilities; notably, he is the first in-story to use the term Nōryoku-sha.
  4. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 4 (p. 150), About how many are there in the "Devil Fruit Series", and what kind of Fruits will turn up?
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 40 Chapter 385 (p. 5) and Episode 271, Jabra tries to stop Kaku and Kalifa from eating Devil Fruits by telling them how bad they taste.
  6. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 70 Chapter 698 (p. 17) and Episode 625, Law explains about Vegapunk's research on how Devil Fruits give power.
  7. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 45 (p. 128), Do all Devil Fruit have that swirly pattern on them?
  8. 8.0 8.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 69 Chapter 685 (p. 8) and Episode 611, Momonosuke eats Vegapunk's Artificial Devil Fruit in a flashback.
  9. 9.0 9.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 95 Chapter 964 (p. 17) and Episode 964, Toki states that she was born 800 years before a point prior to 30 years ago.
  10. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 77 (p. 154), "A question for Ei-chan. If you take a single bite out of a Devil Fruit, and then someone else eats the rest of it, will they still be able to gain the ability? Take it away, Ei-chan."
  11. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 1 Chapter 1 and Episode 4, Luffy turns into a rubber man mere moments after eating the Gomu Gomu no Mi.
  12. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 3 Chapter 19 and Episode 8, Buggy loses the ability to swim immediately after swallowing the Bara Bara no Mi.
  13. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 40 Chapter 385 (p. 2-3) and Episode 271, Consuming two Devil Fruits is discussed.
  14. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 62 Chapter 613 (p. 9) and Episode 532, Shirahoshi talks about Decken's abilities.
  15. 15.0 15.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 96 Chapter 969 (p. 4) and Episode 970.
  16. 16.0 16.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 41 Chapter 391 (p. 13-14) and Episode 275, Nico Robin's Devil Fruit powers made her an outcast on her home island of Ohara. The villagers and other children considered her a freak of nature.
  17. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 24 (p. 166), How is it that the spikes from Miss Doublefinger's "Toge Toge no Mi" powers come out of her clothes?
  18. One Piece Anime — Episode 944, Queen's brachiosaurus transformation is shown in detail and his artificial arm transforms with the rest of him.
  19. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 51 Chapter 499 (p. 16) and Episode 393, Bonney transforms with her cloth being affected.
  20. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 51 Chapter 501 (p. 7) and Episode 395, The slave list is seen with Devil Fruit users mentioned under price listing.
  21. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 77 Chapter 766 (p. 3) and Episode 705, Diez Barrel stating how much Marines were willing to spend on the Ope Ope no Mi.
  22. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 41 Chapter 392 and Episode 275, Jaguar D. Saul is unsurprised by Robin's Devil Fruit as he's been to the Grand Line before.
  23. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 2 Chapter 15 (p. 10) and Episode 6, Luffy faces against Buggy.
  24. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 12 Chapter 100 (p. 14) and Episode 53, Luffy faces against Smoker.
  25. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 68 Chapter 676 (p. 6-7) and Episode 602, the Sara Sara no Mi Model, Axolotl is seen regenerating.
  26. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 74 Chapter 738 (p. 4-7) and Episode 671, The SMILE Factory is shown.
  27. 27.0 27.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 40 Chapter 385 (p. 4) and Episode 271, Kaku and Kalifa discuss their unidentified Devil Fruits.
  28. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 45 (p. 188), Oda explains about the Devil Fruit Encyclopedia.
  29. 29.0 29.1 One Piece Manga — Vol. 45 Chapter 440 (p. 17), Blackbeard talks about his search for the Yami Yami no Mi.
  30. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 84 Chapter 840 (p. 14) and Episode 803, The encyclopedia is shown in Vinsmoke Sanji's possession.
  31. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 48 Chapter 464 (p. 6-8) and Episode 359, Sanji mentions reading a book on Devil Fruits.
  32. 32.0 32.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 69 Chapter 689 (p. 15-17) and Episode 615, Caesar explains about his SMILE Devil Fruits.
  33. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 70 Chapters 697698 (p. 17, 13-17) and Episodes 623625, Law talks about Kaidou's connection to SMILEs.
  34. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 0 Chapter 0 (p. 16-18) and Episode 0, Shiki escapes from Impel Down.
  35. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 54 Chapter 530 and Episode 425, Sengoku speaks of Shiki's escape from Impel Down.
  36. One Piece Anime — Episode 426, Shiki's escape from Impel Down is shown in a flashback.
  37. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 56 Chapter 544 (p. 11) and Episode 447, Crocodile explains that the Jailer Beasts of Impel Down are "awakened" Zoans.
  38. 38.0 38.1 One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 78 Chapter 785 (p. 8) and Episode 727, Doflamingo explains the power that an Awakened Devil Fruit grants.
  39. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 88 Chapter 882 (p. 8-11) and Episode 855.
  40. One Piece Movie — One Piece Film: Gold, Carina explains Tesoro's awakened ability.
  41. One Piece Movie — One Piece: Stampede, Bullet's abilities are seen.
  42. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 76 Chapter 763 (p. 11) and Episode 702, Doflamingo explains that a Devil Fruit may be Law's one hope of a cure.
  43. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 52 Chapter 505 (p. 2-7) and Episode 399, The Marines fight against Luffy, Law, and Kid.
  44. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 53 Chapter 515 (p. 10) and Episode 409, The Kuja Tribe discovers Luffy's stretching, thinking all males can do the same.
  45. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 60 Chapter 594 (p. 15) and Episode 512, The Kujas pull Jinbe and Rayleigh's skin.
  46. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 1 Chapter 1 (p. 22) and Episode 4, The people of Luffy's village find his powers fascinating.
  47. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 41 (p. 206), Oda mentions all types of Water cause weakness in Devil Fruit users.
  48. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 80 Chapter 806 (p. 5) and Episode 755, Luffy hitching a ride on Wany.
  49. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 63 Chapter 617 (p. 10) and Episode 536, Brook losing strength as the water levels rise.
  50. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 22 Chapter 200 (p. 16-19) and Episode 122, Luffy becomes Mizu Luffy to fight Crocodile.
  51. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 22 Chapter 201 (p. 3-11, 18-19) and Episode 122.
  52. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 24 Chapter 219 (p. 10-12, 19) and Episode 144, Luffy, Zoro, and Sanji explore the St. Bliss.
  53. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 22 Chapter 199 and Episode 121, Luffy using water to solidify Crocodile's sand.
  54. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 84 Chapter 842 (p. 5) and Episode 805, Nami creating rainwater to soften Cracker's hardened biscuits.
  55. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 86 Chapter 863 (p. 15) and Episode 833, Jinbe using tea to douse Katakuri's mochi, causing it to lose much adhesiveness.
  56. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 43 Chapter 411 (p. 11-15) and Episode 295, Nami and Sanji had Kalifa's bubble effects washed off with water.
  57. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 57 Chapter 558 (p. 13) and Episode 467, Jinbe throwing seawater at Moria's zombies, purifying them.
  58. One Piece Movie — One Piece Film: Gold, Tesoro loses control over the gold when seawater splashed onto them.
  59. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 20 Chapter 178 (p. 5) and Episode 110, Crocodile states about the fact of a Devil Fruit.
  60. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 79 (p. 100), Devil Fruit superiority hierarchy is revealed.
  61. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 56 Chapter 546 (p. 2) and Episode 449, As Mr. 3 and Magellan's powers clash, Crocodile makes a comment on the surprising result of these two powers match up.
  62. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 18 Chapter 158 (p. 18-19) and Episode 95, Ace fight Smoker.
  63. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 58 Chapter 572 (p. 9) and Episode 481, Ace fight Kuzan.
  64. One Piece Movie — Dead End Adventure, Luffy fight Gasparde.
  65. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 87 Chapter 877 (p. 10) and Episode 849, Luffy fight Katakuri on the Thousand Sunny.
  66. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 87 Chapter 879 (p. 11-17) and Episodes 851852, Luffy fight Katakuri in the Mirro-World.
  67. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 30 Chapter 279 (p. 9-19) and Episode 182, Luffy fight Enel.
  68. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 56 Chapter 545 (p. 18-19) and Episode 449, Galdino blocks Magellan.
  69. One Piece Movie — One Piece Film: Gold, Nico Robin grabs Tanaka, allowing Sanji to defeat him.
  70. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 84 Chapter 848 (p. 14-15) and Episode 814, Brook fight several Homies.
  71. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 87 Chapter 876 (p. 16) and Episode 848, Pudding confuses several Homies.
  72. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 91 Chapter 918 (p. 4-5) and Episode 906, Tama tame Speed.
  73. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 53 Chapter 517 (p. 14-15) and Episode 411, A Kuja telling a younger member about the falsified legend of the sisters.
  74. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 63 Chapter 615 (p. 7) and Episode 534, Decken himself tells the humans captured by Hody Jones that his powers is a "curse".
  75. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 75 Chapter 743 (p. 5) and Episode 677.
  76. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 71 Chapter 711 (p. 2-7) and Episode 641, Nico Robin stitched to the ground and Leo unstitching her after.
  77. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 44 Chapter 423 (p. 9) and Episode 306, Funkfreed reverts to his animal form after Franky threatens that he will blow a hole to his head.
  78. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 94 Chapter 943 (p. 8-13) and Episode 941, Hiyori, Shutenmaru, Hyogoro and Shinobu explain the side effects of SMILE to the others.
  79. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 74 Chapter 738 (p. 4-7) and Episode 671, A member of the Donquixote Pirates lies to the dwarves about the need for SMILEs.
  80. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 17 Chapter 149 (p. 3-9) and Episode 88, The effects of the Rumble Ball are explained.
  81. One Piece Anime — Episode 427.
  82. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 19 Chapter 169 (p. 17) and Episode 106, Pell talk about the few powers discovered that grant flying.
  83. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 29 Chapter 274 (p. 15) and Episode 180, Robin states that amongst the many Devil Fruits that exist, the Goro Goro no Mi is one of the few considered to be unrivaled.
  84. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 45 Chapter 440 (p. 17) and Episode 325, Teach claims that the Yami Yami no Mi is unique, even for a Logia.
  85. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 58 (p. 24), Oda confirms that the Gura Gura no Mi is the strongest Paramecia.
  86. Vivre Card - One Piece Visual Dictionary (Card #0595), The Magu Magu no Mi is stated to be one of the highest offensive powers.
  87. One Piece Manga and Anime — Vol. 76 Chapter 761 (p. 7-9) and Episode 700, Doflamingo explains that the Ope Ope no Mi is the "Ultimate Devil Fruit".
  88. Dillon, C., 2001. Superstitions and folk remedies. San Jose, Calif.: Authors Choice Press, p.63.
  89. Compton, N., 2013. Why sailors can't swim and other marvellous maritime curiosities. London: Bloomsbury, p.18.
  90. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 16 (p. 80), Fan question: if I eat Luffy, can I become a Gomu human?
  91. SBS One Piece Manga — Vol. 37 (p. 46), Oda determines whether the Devil Fruits are suitable for anime only.

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