Ohara was a country for 5000 years, when the Tree of Knowledge was planted on the very island. For millenia, scholars and archaeologists thrived there, learning about history, a course of action that the World Government permitted.Nico Olvia, an archaeologist, left the island on an expedition to find out more about the Void Century and met Jaguar D. Saul. Saul helped her to escape and ended up on Ohara, where he befriended Olvia's daughter, Nico Robin. After the government discovered that the scholars were studying the forbidden Poneglyphs and the Void Century, they ordered the island's destruction via the Buster Call. Among the Vice Admirals sent to carry out the attack were Sakazuki and Kuzan, a friend of Saul. The government then used propaganda to demonize the citizens of Ohara, stating that they were attempting to use forbidden knowledge for global destruction, as several Poneglyphs also contain information about the Ancient Weapons. The only survivor of Ohara is Nico Robin, who was branded a criminal for her ability to read Poneglyphs.
The way the Marines terminated all the scholars of Ohara and its knowledge could be a reference to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty. This was alleged to have destroyed philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought, with the goal of strengthening the official Qin governing philosophy of Legalism, simillar to how the World government strengthening the principle of Justice.