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Treasure refers to anything that is held in great value, whether by a single individual or an entire civilization.
While the most common examples (especially among pirates) entail the likes of gold or gemstones, treasure is an inherently subjective term, and may just as easily involve things that cannot be bought, traded, or even touched. How one applies it—and how hard one will fight to protect it, especially against overwhelming odds—continues to be one of One Piece's most enduring themes.
In One Piece, the idea of treasure has been raised a number of times. While most pirates, like Buggy or Nami, value gold, silver and jewels, there are others who hold other treasures dearer to their heart, leading to many items being stated to be a "treasure". These items often get their value for personal reasons, but are also something people in the One Piece world themselves are willing to fight for.
- Luffy considers his Straw Hat his treasure because he took a promise to return it to Shanks.
- Zoro as a dedicated swordsman due to his vow with Kuina to become the best swordsman considered her sword Wado Ichimonji a priceless treasure alongside other Meitos he had acquired from people whom he deeply respected such as Ippon Matsu's Sandai Kitetsu and Yubashiri, Shimotsuki Ryuma's Shusui and Kozuki Hiyori's Enma.
- Nami considers money and her tangerines to be treasure. However her true treasure is the people of Cocoyasi Village, going as far as stealing a large amount of money to save their lives.
- Sanji considers his hands to be his treasure, because as a cook, he would be unable to prepare meals if anything happened to them, hence his kick based fighting style.
- Chopper's hat and flag are his treasures because Dr. Hiriluk gave them to him. He also considers human life and proper treatment to be a treasure of sorts. When Hogback struck Victoria Cindry, Chopper became angry and attacked, seeing Hogback, who used to be a doctor and was supposed to help people with their problems, disregard his vow for human life.
- Robin considers history more valuable than gold and to her there is no bigger crime than destroying something from long ago such as a set of ruins. The reason being is that humans can study and look back at history, but they can never return to the past, thus when it is destroyed that part of history is forever lost.
- Brook considers his afro a treasure because it's the only thing Laboon would recognize him by.
- Chouchou treasure is Hocker's pet shop.
- Boodle, the mayor of Orange Town considered his town his treasure and was willing to fight Buggy for it.
- Gaimon considered the animals on his island a treasure after finding out that the treasure he was guarding for twenty years was already gone before he got there.
- As stated by Ippon Matsu and Tashigi, Meitos are considered extremely valuable treasures for their superior craftsmanship as the masterpieces of world renowned swordsmiths such as Shimotsuki Kozaburo's Wado Ichimonji which can be sold for 10,000,000. Meitos are considered by most swordsmen to be such priceless treasures that some can become cherished as family heirlooms to pass onto their descendants (e.g. Yubashiri, Ame no Habakiri and Enma) with some even being prized as a country's national treasure (e.g. Shusui from Wano Country).
- To the Shandia their former home of Shandora was their treasure and they were prepared to die for just one bag of Vearth.
- Hogback arrogantly considered his mind and medical expertise a treasure for all mankind.
- Ace, before exhaling his last breath, thanked his brother and his friends for loving him despite his heritage, suggesting that those relationships were more precious to him than any amount of gold, a trait he had in common with his captain Edward Newgate.
- Edward Newgate considered his pirate crew and allies as his treasure, so his treasure was family.
- Sabo considers the bond he had with his brothers Ace and Luffy to be his greatest treasure.
- The Energy Steroids were considered a national treasure on Fish-Man island.
- Donquixote Doflamingo has knowledge of the existence of a hidden National Treasure of the World Nobles that if exposed could shake its very foundations, and was so important that they complied with Doflamingo's blackmail granting him all the privileges of a Celestial Dragon. It is also said that if this treasure is used in combination with the Ope Ope no Mi, it would allow the person to effectively conquer the entire world.
- Charlotte Linlin considered the only portrait of Mother Carmel which she has kept for 60 years since childhood to be her most precious treasure, and will undergo an immense emotional breakdown should it be damaged in the slightest.
The series is named after the One Piece; a treasure of the late Pirate King, Gol D. Roger, with the biggest mystery being what it is. It is located on Laugh Tale, and island named by Roger, which is reachable only by following the Poneglyph as described on Lodestar Island, the last island on the Grand Line, thus Laugh Tale was named the "final island on the Grand Line".
- Despite their association and love for plunder and treasure, most pirates in reality were broke and had little treasure at all because they spent most of what they stole on alcohol, women, and gambling.